Conferências CIUHCT

História de uma doença socioespacial : A tuberculose na cidade de Barcelona (1931-1936)

FCT-UNL, Caparica
História de uma doença socioespacial : A tuberculose na cidade de Barcelona (1931-1936)

No início do século XX, a tuberculose, “doença social” por excelência do século XIX, ainda estava muito associada à miséria na imaginação coletiva. A construção da tuberculose como uma “doença social”, assim como as medidas tomadas para prevenir e curar a doença, foram estudadas por vários historiadores da medicina (cf. D. Barnes, J. Molero Mesa). Esta conferência visa focalizar a relação entre tuberculose e espaço urbano, tomando como estudo de caso a cidade de Barcelona durante a Segunda República (de 1931 até ao fracassado golpe de 1936). Pretende-se demonstrar que a tuberculose não foi pensada apenas como uma doença social, mas que também foi construída como um problema espacial e, mais especificamente, um problema urbano.

A comunicação primeiramente centrar-se-á nos discursos dos atores da saúde para mostrar como a lenta vitória da teoria bacteriológica, que focaliza a atenção no micróbio, leva à redefinição do vínculo entre doença e espaço urbano. A partir das práticas concretas dos vários atores envolvidos (médicos, arquitetos, higienistas, autoridades públicas), também se analisará como, na Barcelona republicana, foi estabelecida uma nova luta socioespacial contra a tuberculose. Finalmente, abordam-se os doentes e as suas experiências vividas da doença e do dispositivo de saúde. Essa perspetiva permite matizar a visão proposta pelas autoridades e pelos "peritos" e sugere um novo tipo de relação entre a tuberculose e a cidade.


At the beginning of the 20th century, tuberculosis, the “social disease” of the nineteenth century, was still associated with misery in the collective imagination. The construction of tuberculosis as a social disease, as well as the measures taken to prevent and cure it, have already been studied (D. Barnes, J. Molero Mesa). This conference aims to explore the relationship between tuberculosis and urban space, taking as a case-study the city of Barcelona during the 2nd Republic (1929-1936, before the Civil war).

It will argue that the white plague was not only approached as a social disease, but it was also built as a spatial problem, and more specifically an urban problem.

Focusing on the discourses of the physicians, the first part of the conference will show how the bacteriological theory that prevailed in the beginning of the twentieth century and the improvement of hygiene conditions led to a redefinition of the link between tuberculosis and urban space. By studying the concrete practices of the various actors involved (doctors, architects, hygienists, public authorities), the second part will explain how this new socio-spatial fight against tuberculosis was organized in Barcelona during the Republican period. Finally, the conference will also deal with the patients and their experience of the disease and the healthcare services. This perspective allows to introduce nuances to the vision proposed by the authorities and the “experts” and suggests a new kind of relation between tuberculosis and the city.


Biografia: Celia Miralles Buil é historiadora e investigadora de pós-doutoramento no CIUHCT. Em 2014, defendeu uma tese em história e urbanismo intitulada "A tuberculose no espaço social de Barcelona 1929-1936" (Université Lyon 2, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya). Os seus interesses de investigação situam-se na encruzilhada entre a história da medicina e a história urbana. Está atualmente a estudar a relação entre a saúde e o ambiente marinho nas cidades portuárias do sul da Europa no final do século XIX e na primeira metade do século XX.

13h00
CIUHCT - Centro Interuniversitário de História das Ciências e da Tecnologia
CIUHCT
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